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Boys and Education in the Global South: Emerging Vulnerabilities and New Opportunities for Promoting Changes in Gender Norms

Gary Barker, Ravi Verma, John Crownover, Marcio Segundo, Vanessa Fonseca, Juan Manuel Contreras, Brian Heilman, Peter Pawlak

This article presents a review of global data on boys’ education in the Global South and recent findings on the influence of boys’ educational a!ainment on their a!itudes and behaviors in terms of gender equality. The article also presents three examples—from Brazil, the Balkans, and India—on evaluated, school-based approaches for engaging boys and girls in…
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“Entre Nós”: Limites e possibilidades de ações educativas para a promoção da equidade de gênero em escolas do Rio de Janeiro e Salvador

Vanessa Fonseca, Christine Ricardo

This paper proposes a debate on the limits and possibilities of implementing projects aimed at promoting gender equity in schools, from the educational tools and their adaptations created for this purpose – Programs H and M.

Pais e Filhas: Uma experiência de envolvimento de pais de meninas na promoção da equidade de gênero e emporamento de suas filhas

Vanessa Fonseca, Christine Ricardo

This study examined how the dynamics of relationships between fathers and daughters influences the empowerment of girls, in order to raise awareness among parents about the challenges and opportunities that can arise from their relationship with their daughters.

Violence against young children: What does gender have to do with it?

Gary Barker, Marcos Nascimento

Despite a clear connection between violence against children and violence against women, the two issues are rarely considered together. In this article from the Bernard van Leer Foundation’s Early Childhood Matters, Gary Barker and Marcos Nascimento discuss results from their recent research in Brazil and from global survey data.

Young people work to promote gender equality in Brazil (Entre Nós)

Christine Ricardo, Vanessa Fonseca

Entre Nós (“Between Us”) is an innovative multi-media campaign to engage Brazilian youth in critical reflections on rigid ideas about gender and how they influence their lives and relationships. The campaign was developed and implemented by Promundo, a Brazilian NGO based in Rio de Janeiro, and a group of young women and men peer educators…
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Measuring Attitudes toward Gender Norms among Young Men in Brazil: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the GEM Scale

Julie Pulerwitz, Gary Barker

This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a twenty-four-item scale to measure attitudes toward gender norms among young men: the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) Scale. Scale items on gender norms related to sexual and reproductive health, sexual relations, violence, domestic work, and homophobia are designed. Items are based on previous qualitative work in the…
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Challenging and Changing Gender Attitudes among Young Men in Mumbai, India

Ravi K Verma, Julie Pulerwitz, Vaishali Mahendra, Sujata Khandekar, Gary Barker, P Fulpagare, SK Singh

This article presents findings from a pilot intervention in 2005–2006 to promote gender equity among young men from low-income communities in Mumbai, India. The project involved formative work on gender, sexuality and masculinity, and educational activities with 126 young men, aged 18–29, over a six-month period. The programme was called Yaari Dosti, Hindi for friendship…
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Gender, sexual behaviour and vulnerability among young people

Christine Ricardo, Gary Barker, Julie Pulerwitz, Valeria Rocha

This chapter illustrates how gender represents a complex interplay of contextual and individual factors, which create advantages and disadvantages for both young women and young men in terms of sexuality and related health issues. It applies an ecological model to emphasize how gender norms, as they relate to sexual behavior, are internalized by the individual through an…
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How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men: lessons from Program H in Latin America

Gary Barker, Marcos Nascimento, Márcio Segundo, Julie Pulerwitz

This article presents findings from the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and lessons from Program H in Latin America. It concludes that, given the short timescale of many interventions with young men, it is often unrealistic to expect changes in behavior, and difficult to measure such change. The GEM Scale thus provides a potentially more sensitive…
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Cool Your Head, Man: Preventing gender based violence in favelas

Gary Barker

Gary Barker presents results from an action-research project that sought to identify more gender-equitable young men in a low income setting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where violence against women was common. The research identified factors that may have contributed to the young men’s alternative values and were incorporated into a community intervention that seeks…
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