Program P provides concrete strategies and activities to engage men globally in active fatherhood from their partner’s pregnancies through their children’s early years.
Program P was designed around a growing body of research, including results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES), that highlights how men’s involved caregiving benefits mothers, prevents violence against women and children, and positively impacts family well-being. Promundo and our partners have conducted formative research to adapt the Program P model across multiple countries and regions.
Hands-on activities and role-playing exercises with fathers and couples create a safe environment for discussing and challenging traditional gender norms and practicing new, positive social behaviors related to men’s caregiving and involvement in prenatal, newborn, and children’s health. Along with group education for parents, Program P trainings are carried out for health and social sector staff in conjunction with community-level campaigns and local and national advocacy initiatives.
As part of the global MenCare campaign, the Program P toolkit includes a step-by-step guide for creating and launching community campaigns to promote positive, involved caregiving.
Program P is named after padre and pai, the words for father in Spanish and Portuguese. Part of the MenCare Campaign, Program P is a direct and targeted response to the need for concrete strategies to engage men in active fatherhood from prenatal care through delivery, childbirth, and their children’s early years.
Developed in partnership with Puntos de Encuentro in Nicaragua, CulturaSalud in Chile, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the program has three components: offering information and tools for health care providers, developing group activities for fathers and couples, and providing guidance for designing community campaigns. By targeting men, primarily through health sector, Program P engages fathers and their partners at a critical moment – usually during their partner’s pregnancies – when they are open to adopting new caregiving behaviors.
More specifically, the Program P manual contains: (1) background research on the latest data on why engaging men as caregivers is an essential part of maternal health and gender equality; (2) a guide for health professionals on how to engage men in the prenatal consultation space and primary health clinics; (3) a series of interactive modules for gender-transformative group education with men, and in some instances their female partners; and (4) a step-by-step guide to create and launch a MenCare community campaign.
Working with men as fathers is a key entry point to discussing sensitive subjects around traditional gender norms, and the way in which these norms negatively impact communities. Through discussion guides, role plays, and hands-on activities (such as learning how to change diapers), men and their partners are encouraged to discuss and challenge traditional masculine and inequitable gender norms and to practice more positive social behaviors in their families and communities.
With support from the Dutch Foreign Ministry, Program P has been adapted in Brazil, Indonesia, Rwanda, and South Africa in both rural and urban settings as part of the MenCare+ program. MenCare+, a collaboration between Promundo and Rutgers WPF, is a multi-component program working at individual, community, and policy levels to engage men and women as partners in maternal, newborn, and child health; in sexual and reproductive health and rights; and in violence prevention.
Results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Program P in Rwanda, released in 2018, reveal powerful impacts of this targeted, gender-transformative programming on health and violence outcomes. Results show that almost two years after participating in the program, men are nearly half as likely to use violence against their female partners and spend almost one hour more per day doing household chores.
Qualitative results from Program P’s implementation have also shown positive changes in the lives of men and their families. Young fathers in Nicaragua, one of the locations where Program P was tested, reported improved relationships with their children and partners, as well as greater participation in household work and childcare. In addition, in a partnership between World Education and Promundo, men in Sri Lanka learned to manage difficult emotions and reported a decrease in substance abuse among both themselves and their partners. Furthermore, many of the men and staff who were involved have continued to spread the program’s messages throughout their communities and have recruited other men to participate.
Program P has been adapted and/or implemented with partners in at least 18 countries around the world, including in: Nicaragua, Chile, Brazil, Indonesia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Lebanon, Bolivia, Russia, Guatemala, India, Armenia, Haiti, Ghana, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Mozambique. In certain contexts, such as in India and Armenia, the methodology has been adapted to address specific issues: child marriage and prenatal sex selection, respectively. In Bangladesh, the curriculum focuses on addressing violence against women and violence against children.
Download the full Program P manual in English and its adaptations in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, and Russian here.
- MenCare: The MenCare campaign promotes men’s equal involvement in caregiving and equitable, nonviolent fatherhood practices around the world.
- MenCare+: MenCare+ engages men as partners in maternal and child health and in sexual and reproductive health and rights.
- Program H: Designed for young men, Program H encourages critical reflection about rigid norms related to manhood and encourages transformation of stereotypical roles associated with gender.