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Measuring Attitudes toward Gender Norms among Young Men in Brazil: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the GEM Scale

Julie Pulerwitz, Gary Barker

This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a twenty-four-item scale to measure attitudes toward gender norms among young men: the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) Scale. Scale items on gender norms related to sexual and reproductive health, sexual relations, violence, domestic work, and homophobia are designed. Items are based on previous qualitative work in the…
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Challenging and Changing Gender Attitudes among Young Men in Mumbai, India

Ravi K Verma, Julie Pulerwitz, Vaishali Mahendra, Sujata Khandekar, Gary Barker, P Fulpagare, SK Singh

This article presents findings from a pilot intervention in 2005–2006 to promote gender equity among young men from low-income communities in Mumbai, India. The project involved formative work on gender, sexuality and masculinity, and educational activities with 126 young men, aged 18–29, over a six-month period. The programme was called Yaari Dosti, Hindi for friendship…
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Gender, sexual behaviour and vulnerability among young people

Christine Ricardo, Gary Barker, Julie Pulerwitz, Valeria Rocha

This chapter illustrates how gender represents a complex interplay of contextual and individual factors, which create advantages and disadvantages for both young women and young men in terms of sexuality and related health issues. It applies an ecological model to emphasize how gender norms, as they relate to sexual behavior, are internalized by the individual through an…
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How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men: lessons from Program H in Latin America

Gary Barker, Marcos Nascimento, Márcio Segundo, Julie Pulerwitz

This article presents findings from the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and lessons from Program H in Latin America. It concludes that, given the short timescale of many interventions with young men, it is often unrealistic to expect changes in behavior, and difficult to measure such change. The GEM Scale thus provides a potentially more sensitive…
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Cool Your Head, Man: Preventing gender based violence in favelas

Gary Barker

Gary Barker presents results from an action-research project that sought to identify more gender-equitable young men in a low income setting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where violence against women was common. The research identified factors that may have contributed to the young men’s alternative values and were incorporated into a community intervention that seeks…
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