Program H: A Review of the Evidence: Nearly Two Decades of Engaging Young Men and Boys in Gender Equality

This review on Program H – a gender-transformative approach designed to engage young men in changing gender norms related to masculinities that perpetuate gender inequality – brings together findings from 14 impact evaluations that have been carried out in 12 countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Ethiopia, India, Kosovo, Namibia, Rwanda, Serbia, the United States, and Vietnam. It highlights findings from studies that were the most robust in terms of evaluation methodology or sample size and that included a substantial portion of the original Program H activities. The review includes three randomized controlled trials, nine quasi experimental designs, and two pre-post evaluations (without a comparison group), with sample sizes ranging from 100 to more than 3,000. The timing of follow-up varied across sites, but most surveys occurred directly after the intervention ended, approximately three to six months after baseline. Several studies were designed to compare the impact of Program H group education versus a campaign or a combined intervention (group education plus campaign).

This review is designed to provide those interested in implementing and evaluating Program H in other settings with an update on the evidence collected to date, as well as lessons learned and recommendations on how to strengthen future programmatic design, implementation, and evaluation efforts.